separation by membranes

This chapter describes the various choices that the designer has to make in order to optimise a membrane system for a specific application. First, he has to choose the membrane (module) and then the module layout and, finally, the operating parameters that will determine operating costs and system reliability.

The final paragraph (see section main membrane applications) describes the main membrane applications in drinking and industrial water treatment, desalination and re-use.

The different types of membrane have already been discussed in the section membrane separation, together with forecast separation rates and the major parameters that govern membrane performance levels. This section also provides the vocabulary necessary to understanding what follows.