specifics water treatmentReading time:
As already covered in the introduction, the main purpose consists in eliminating the unwanted elements routinely detected in groundwaters which, depending on the nature of these elements, will call for an extremely wide range of technologies and more or less complex systems when several of these elements are present together (e.g. Fe, Mn, NH4, NO3, H2S…).
Occasionally, some of these elements can also be found in surface waters; depending on the case, these elements will be removed using either one of the general processes discussed in the preceding sub-chapter or an additional treatment stage that will be incorporated into basic systems applied to lake and river waters.
Finally, the elements likely to be found in all water types (OM, heavy metals, metalloids, radioactive elements…) will be reviewed. The removal efficiency using customary methods may vary significantly depending on the nature of these elements, calling for specific materials in some cases (e.g. As(III) and As (V), F–…).