changes to the carbonate balance

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These treatments apply to all types of water (surface or groundwater), whether or not combined with more complex systems. They are designed to:

  • either encourage the formation of a Tillmans protective carbonaceous lining for preventing corrosion in cast iron or steel pipes, by eliminating the aggressive CO2 and adjusting pH to its equilibrium value (neutralisation); if, additionally, the water is too soft, the aim of the treatment will also be to raise the M-alk. and Calcium Hardness (remineralisation);
  • or by reducing the hydrogen carbonate (carbonate removal) and/or calcium (softening) levels in the water.

The principle underlying these treatments was discussed in section neutralisation – remineralisation.