The choice of treatment will depend on the radionuclides present and in problems associated with the waste: sludge from clarifiers, filter materials etc.
Coagulation-flocculation treatments effectively remove colloid-related radioactivity.
Carbonate removal using lime effectively eliminates radium and uranium.
Filtration through activated carbon removes some radioelements such as uranium, cobalt, chromium, iodine, tungsten…
Filtration through certain special materials enriched with Mn oxides (e.g. manganised green sand) will also produce good results, especially on radium (trials required in each case).
Treatments using desalination membranes will effectively remove all dissolved radionuclides (usually PS radionuclides < PS Cℓ–), only radon and tritium will not be removed.
Aeration alone is only really capable of eliminating radon.
Tritium (quality reference: 100 Bq · L–1) cannot be removed by any of the conventional water treatments. However, these levels rarely occur in natural water.