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The ingestion of radioactive products (see radioactivity) can also create a risk of radio-induced pathological effects, especially the appearance of malignant tumours or, in cases of very high exposure, lethal damage to vital functions (digestive or nervous system, red blood cell production …). Although the risk of genetic effects with their consequences for later generations has never been reported, this risk has, nevertheless, been suspected.

Water produced must comply with the legislation applicable in each country. Treatments applied will depend on the contaminants occurring: coagulation-flocculation, lime precipitation, filtration through GAC, ion exchanges or reverse osmosis … (see radioactivity).