trickling

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Trickling requires a 1 to 3 m height gravity fall.

cascade

This basic process (photo 2) is used when a gravity fall height of 1 to 2 metres is available and when a high level of effectiveness is not required.

cascade plant trickling air oxidationSecured image
Photo 2. Maha Sawat-krung Thep plant (Thailand). Output: 400 000 m3·d–1 – four 50 cm steps

trickling over trays

These aerators have been more or less perfected and use a forced ventilation system.

trickling over contact media

This technique is identical to that of the standard trickling filter (see fundamental biological engineering processes applicable to water treatment).

Both the latter techniques can be used to reach extremely high rates of mass transfer and oxidation.