primary treatment

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When necessary, primary treatment includes:

    • bar-screening/straining in most industries;
    • grit/grease removal from storm water or from IWW produced by metal and steel industries and some agri-food industries (see chapter pre-treatments);
    • oil removal: oil and petrochemicals, energy generating plant, metal and steel mills;
    • neutralisation;
    • cooling (if necessary, for example in downstream treatments);

flocculators – settling tanks – flotation units

    • remove suspended solids and colloids;
    • precipitate and separate toxic or undesirable metals and salts;
    • remove emulsified oils.